Medikua eta OEEko kidea
Quit smoking, do a little more exercise, try to lose a few kilos. Such decisions have a very positive effect on our health. But will these factors influence the onset of cancer? Below I will mention the most 'healthy' decisions that citizens can make in their daily lives according to the European Code against Cancer, indicating the risk percentage of each of them.
Overweight and obesity are becoming one of the most dangerous chronic diseases in Western societies, not only because of increased cancer risk, but also because of increased frequency of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Obesity is very related to cancer of the uterus (43%) and colon and rectum (14%), to mention only adults. However, in cases where you have to lose a lot of kilo, it is essential to follow the instructions of a doctor, following a healthy (and not excessively strict) diet recommended by him, to lose weight at an appropriate rate (0.5-1 kg/week).
It is estimated that among smokers the number of cancer-related deaths is three times higher than among those who have never.
Tobacco is one of the factors that most influence the onset of cancer, especially in the case of lung cancer (between 87% and 91% of cases are due to direct tobacco use in men). But in addition to lung, tobacco is also associated with other types of cancer: larynx, esophagus, oral cavity, kidney, bladder, etc.
Passive smokers are also not freed from the negative effect of tobacco. According to a new study, environmental smoking increases the risk of lung cancer by 20 to 30% and the risk of heart disease by 30%.
A low-calorie, low-fat diet can reduce the risk of cancer.
To prevent stomach, prostate, breast (and other parts of the body related to what we eat) cancers, it is key to eat five servings of fresh vegetables and fruits daily. In addition, it is recommended to consume fish 2-3 times a week, twice legumes and cereals. In this sense, it is recommended to replace white bread, pasta and rice with wholes. Saturated fats (red meat, sausages, butter, pastries, etc.) Two other simple measures are the reduction of consumption and use of olive oil in the kitchen.
Both men and women over the age of 50 should begin special colon cancer screening tests to make this screening as early as possible. One is a stool blood test and a colonoscopy test. The first test can reduce colon cancer mortality by 16% to 27%.
People who live active have half the risk of cancer than sedentary people. But to make things clear, to be fit it is not essential to hit in the gym and make fire, just do any type of exercise regularly (2-3 times a week), with sessions of at least 30 minutes. The type of exercise must be adapted to age and physical preparation.
Cancers most related to lack of exercise are colon (14%) and breast (9%). Prostate, lung, and uterine cancers follow.
18% of cancers come from virus and bacterial infections. For example, many liver cancers are caused by hepatitis B and C viruses. The hepatitis B vaccine is currently included in our children's immunization schedule and is a good measure to greatly reduce the risk of cancer.
Alcohol has its consequences in the medium and long term. And excessive abuse is not necessary to begin to perceive the harmful effects and consequences of alcohol.
One study shows that a liter of wine per day increases the risk of breast cancer by 5% in women. But men are also not exempt from the risk: alcohol abuse significantly increases the risk of developing liver cancer (32%), esophagus (41%) and mouth and throat (33%).
A significant percentage of skin cancer cases show excessive sun exposure.
The continuous sun attacks on our skin accumulate and can lead to the appearance of various varieties of skin cancer. That is why it is so important to protect children and adolescents from the sun: it is advisable not to expose them to the sun in the most intense hours, to use a suitable sunscreen and to keep a close eye on the changes in shape and size of the folds and stains.
The Cytology or Pap test is a test for early detection of cervical cancer, which should be performed by all women over the age of 25 or with sex at least every 3-5 years.
It is a very simple test, very simple to perform and that detects possible lesions to the cancer. Thus, diagnosing cancer in its early stages, in a phase in which it can often be said to be a cancer, it is easier to cure it. This test is usually done on a woman's visit to the gynecologist.
Breast cancer is the most common tumor in women. Therefore, it is important that from the age of 40-50 (according to the gynecologist) the woman performs a periodic mammography for her control.