The Basque coast consists of rocky cliffs. Normally the sandy areas are located only in some points near the mouth of the rivers. Due to the slope of the relief of the Basque Country, the population is concentrated in the river valleys, as well as in the coasts and rías. Therefore, our industrial development is located in river basins and in most rías. On the other hand, the activity of the factories and the population reaches the coast over the rivers.
Rivers are used as mobile landfills of our activities. But the river that goes to the sea has no time to recover from pollution. The poisoned water of the rivers reaches the coast with different polluting components. The loss of production of marine ecosystems, the loss of specificities, etc., are the indicators of this deterioration that is affecting coastal areas.
In addition to all this, the entire coast of easy use will go more to tourism and leisure. This latest trend has increased markedly in recent years. Thanks to an economic process called Tertiarization we can find results such as the decline of traditional fishing activities, the continued use of them and the implementation of the infrastructures necessary for leisure, the proliferation of buildings, marinas,...
In order to inform and raise awareness about this serious situation, the annual research network Azterkosta is available. Following the data from the 1993 study, we will summarize the situation of the Basque coast.
With the entire survey, the main human use is 60%. That is, more than half of the population has a very high human use if the coast is taken completely. If only they are considered areas of easy access, you can think that 80% of them are of human use (buildings, infrastructures, industries...). From the data provided by the surveys it is clear that very rare are well-preserved dunes and marshes, which until a few years ago occupied a large area on our coast.
Through the currents, the pollution that comes to destroy the tide has a very homogeneous distribution in Hego Euskal Herria. In addition, there is a clear balance between the original currents (water courses + pipes) and the natural ones (rivers + leaks), although the currents of natural origin continue to increase (57%). In all of them, the discharges of bad color (46%), those of bad smell (40%) and those of liquid discharges (40%) indicate their poor state of departure to the sea.
Another section is that corresponding to the garbage. In general, it is noteworthy the homogeneity and quantity of waste throughout the territory (there is everything and there are many). Taking into account the data, the relationship between consumption and the environment should be analyzed. The less returnable containers and products, so used, cause a great pollution in all the places of our territory, and look good on the coast. Undegenerate plastics appear on 50% of the coast. Tar, oil and oil have to do with springs and docks. Among the domestic garbage are the papers. Despite its great degenerative capacity, it is very abundant. Finally, the items that are not returned on the coast stand out: glasses, cans and bottles, especially in tourist destinations.
And Europe? The V European Study highlights the expansion of more than half of coastal human spaces. In this sense, wetland reduction is evident across the continent.
As in previous years, artificial currents outweigh natural ones. In the Spanish state more than half are in poor condition (bad color, bad smell, liquid spills...). As for the rubbish, the continental coast is quite clean, domestic garbage being the most common. The increase in the amount of waste is remarkable throughout Europe, among which plastics stand out.
As can be seen, our coastline is suffering a serious situation. However, the protection of these areas has not materialized in any case. This is really worrying, because the Spanish Coastal Law establishes that time is opposed to the conservation of natural spaces and favors the growth of urban areas.
Saioa hasi iruzkinak uzteko.